Track events (Tracing SDK)

Track events are part of the Perfetto Tracing SDK.

Track events are application specific, time bounded events recorded into a trace while the application is running. Track events are always associated with a track, which is a timeline of monotonically increasing time. A track corresponds to an independent sequence of execution, such as a single thread in a process.

Track events shown in the Perfetto UI

See the Getting started section of the Tracing SDK page for instructions on how to check out and build the SDK.

TIP: The code from this example is also available as a GitHub repository.

There are a few main types of track events:

The Perfetto UI has built in support for track events, which provides a useful way to quickly visualize the internal processing of an app. For example, the Chrome browser is deeply instrumented with track events to assist in debugging, development and performance analysis.

To start using track events, first define the set of categories that your events will fall into. Each category can be separately enabled or disabled for tracing (see Category configuration).

Add the list of categories into a header file (e.g., my_app_tracing_categories.h) like this:

#include <perfetto.h> PERFETTO_DEFINE_CATEGORIES( perfetto::Category("rendering") .SetDescription("Events from the graphics subsystem"), perfetto::Category("network") .SetDescription("Network upload and download statistics"));

Then, declare static storage for the categories in a cc file (e.g., my_app_tracing_categories.cc):

#include "my_app_tracing_categories.h" PERFETTO_TRACK_EVENT_STATIC_STORAGE();

Finally, initialize track events after the client library is brought up:

int main(int argv, char** argc) { ... perfetto::Tracing::Initialize(args); perfetto::TrackEvent::Register(); // Add this. }

Now you can add track events to existing functions like this:

#include "my_app_tracing_categories.h" void DrawPlayer() { TRACE_EVENT("rendering", "DrawPlayer"); ... }

This type of trace event is scoped, under the hood it uses C++ RAII. The event will cover the time from when the TRACE_EVENT annotation is encountered to the end of the block (in the example above, until the function returns).

You can also supply (up to two) debug annotations together with the event.

int player_number = 1; TRACE_EVENT("rendering", "DrawPlayer", "player_number", player_number);

For more complex arguments, you can define your own protobuf messages and emit them as a parameter for the event.

NOTE: Currently custom protobuf messages need to be added directly to the Perfetto repository under protos/perfetto/trace, and Perfetto itself must also be rebuilt. We are working to lift this limitation.

As an example of a custom track event argument type, save the following as protos/perfetto/trace/track_event/player_info.proto:

message PlayerInfo { optional string name = 1; optional uint64 score = 2; }

This new file should also be added to protos/perfetto/trace/track_event/BUILD.gn:

sources = [ ... "player_info.proto" ]

Also, a matching argument should be added to the track event message definition in protos/perfetto/trace/track_event/track_event.proto:

import "protos/perfetto/trace/track_event/player_info.proto"; ... message TrackEvent { ... // New argument types go here. optional PlayerInfo player_info = 1000; }

The corresponding trace point could look like this:

Player my_player; TRACE_EVENT("category", "MyEvent", [&](perfetto::EventContext ctx) { auto player = ctx.event()->set_player_info(); player->set_name(my_player.name()); player->set_player_score(my_player.score()); });

The lambda function passed to the macro is only called if tracing is enabled for the given category. It is always called synchronously and possibly multiple times if multiple concurrent tracing sessions are active.

Now that you have instrumented your app with track events, you are ready to start recording traces.

Category configuration

All track events are assigned to one more trace categories. For example:

TRACE_EVENT("rendering", ...); // Event in the "rendering" category.

By default, all non-debug and non-slow track event categories are enabled for tracing. Debug and slow categories are categories with special tags:

Category tags can be can be defined like this:

perfetto::Category("rendering.debug") .SetDescription("Debug events from the graphics subsystem") .SetTags("debug", "my_custom_tag")

A single trace event can also belong to multiple categories:

// Event in the "rendering" and "benchmark" categories. TRACE_EVENT("rendering,benchmark", ...);

A corresponding category group entry must be added to the category registry:

perfetto::Category::Group("rendering,benchmark")

It's also possible to efficiently query whether a given category is enabled for tracing:

if (TRACE_EVENT_CATEGORY_ENABLED("rendering")) { // ... }

The TrackEventConfig field in Perfetto's TraceConfig can be used to select which categories are enabled for tracing:

message TrackEventConfig { // Each list item is a glob. Each category is matched against the lists // as explained below. repeated string disabled_categories = 1; // Default: [] repeated string enabled_categories = 2; // Default: [] repeated string disabled_tags = 3; // Default: [“slow”, “debug”] repeated string enabled_tags = 4; // Default: [] }

To determine if a category is enabled, it is checked against the filters in the following order:

  1. Exact matches in enabled categories.
  2. Exact matches in enabled tags.
  3. Exact matches in disabled categories.
  4. Exact matches in disabled tags.
  5. Pattern matches in enabled categories.
  6. Pattern matches in enabled tags.
  7. Pattern matches in disabled categories.
  8. Pattern matches in disabled tags.

If none of the steps produced a match, the category is enabled by default. In other words, every category is implicitly enabled unless specifically disabled. For example:

Setting Needed configuration
Enable just specific categories enabled_categories = [“foo”, “bar”, “baz”]
disabled_categories = [“*”]
Enable all non-slow categories (Happens by default.)
Enable specific tags disabled_tags = [“*”]
enabled_tags = [“foo”, “bar”]

Dynamic and test-only categories

Ideally all trace categories should be defined at compile time as shown above, as this ensures trace points will have minimal runtime and binary size overhead. However, in some cases trace categories can only be determined at runtime (e.g., they come from instrumentation in a dynamically loaded JavaScript running in a WebView or in a NodeJS engine). These can be used by trace points as follows:

perfetto::DynamicCategory dynamic_category{"nodejs.something"}; TRACE_EVENT(dynamic_category, "SomeEvent", ...);

TIP: It's also possible to use dynamic event names by passing nullptr as the name and filling in the TrackEvent::name field manually.

Some trace categories are only useful for testing, and they should not make it into a production binary. These types of categories can be defined with a list of prefix strings:

PERFETTO_DEFINE_TEST_CATEGORY_PREFIXES( "test", // Applies to test.* "dontship" // Applies to dontship.*. );

Performance

Perfetto's trace points are designed to have minimal overhead when tracing is disabled while providing high throughput for data intensive tracing use cases. While exact timings will depend on your system, there is a microbenchmark which gives some ballpark figures:

Scenario Runtime on Pixel 3 XL Runtime on ThinkStation P920
TRACE_EVENT(...) (disabled) 2 ns 1 ns
TRACE_EVENT("cat", "name") 285 ns 630 ns
TRACE_EVENT("cat", "name", <lambda>) 304 ns 663 ns
TRACE_EVENT("cat", "name", "key", value) 354 ns 664 ns
DataSource::Trace(<lambda>) (disabled) 2 ns 1 ns
DataSource::Trace(<lambda>) 133 ns 58 ns

Advanced topics

Tracks

Every track event is associated with a track, which specifies the timeline the event belongs to. In most cases, a track corresponds to a visual horizontal track in the Perfetto UI like this:

Track timelines shown in the Perfetto UI

Events that describe parallel sequences (e.g., separate threads) should use separate tracks, while sequential events (e.g., nested function calls) generally belong on the same track.

Perfetto supports three kinds of tracks:

Tracks can have a parent track, which is used to group related tracks together. For example, the parent of a ThreadTrack is the ProcessTrack of the process the thread belongs to. By default, tracks are grouped under the current process's ProcessTrack.

A track is identified by a uuid, which must be unique across the entire recorded trace. To minimize the chances of accidental collisions, the uuids of child tracks are combined with those of their parents, with each ProcessTrack having a random, per-process uuid.

By default, track events (e.g., TRACE_EVENT) use the ThreadTrack for the calling thread. This can be overridden, for example, to mark events that begin and end on a different thread:

void OnNewRequest(size_t request_id) { // Open a slice when the request came in. TRACE_EVENT_BEGIN("category", "HandleRequest", perfetto::Track(request_id)); // Start a thread to handle the request. std::thread worker_thread([=] { // ... produce response ... // Close the slice for the request now that we finished handling it. TRACE_EVENT_END("category", perfetto::Track(request_id)); });

Tracks can also optionally be annotated with metadata:

auto desc = track.Serialize(); desc.set_name("MyTrack"); perfetto::TrackEvent::SetTrackDescriptor(track, desc);

Threads and processes can also be named in a similar way, e.g.:

auto desc = perfetto::ProcessTrack::Current().Serialize(); desc.mutable_process()->set_process_name("MyProcess"); perfetto::TrackEvent::SetTrackDescriptor( perfetto::ProcessTrack::Current(), desc);

The metadata remains valid between tracing sessions. To free up data for a track, call EraseTrackDescriptor:

perfetto::TrackEvent::EraseTrackDescriptor(track);

Interning

Interning can be used to avoid repeating the same constant data (e.g., event names) throughout the trace. Perfetto automatically performs interning for most strings passed to TRACE_EVENT, but it's also possible to also define your own types of interned data.

First, define an interning index for your type. It should map to a specific field of interned_data.proto and specify how the interned data is written into that message when seen for the first time.

struct MyInternedData : public perfetto::TrackEventInternedDataIndex< MyInternedData, perfetto::protos::pbzero::InternedData::kMyInternedDataFieldNumber, const char*> { static void Add(perfetto::protos::pbzero::InternedData* interned_data, size_t iid, const char* value) { auto my_data = interned_data->add_my_interned_data(); my_data->set_iid(iid); my_data->set_value(value); } };

Next, use your interned data in a trace point as shown below. The interned string will only be emitted the first time the trace point is hit (unless the trace buffer has wrapped around).

TRACE_EVENT( "category", "Event", [&](perfetto::EventContext ctx) { auto my_message = ctx.event()->set_my_message(); size_t iid = MyInternedData::Get(&ctx, "Repeated data to be interned"); my_message->set_iid(iid); });

Note that interned data is strongly typed, i.e., each class of interned data uses a separate namespace for identifiers.